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Morphological changes of SH-SY5Y cells treated with epolactaene or dibutyryl cAMP.
The cells were cultured at 37 in 5 % CO2 humidified atmosphere in Basal Medium Eagle (BME) medium containing 10 % fetal bovine serum on plastic culture dishes. Photograph were obtained after 2 days cultivation with/without epolactaene or dibutyryl cAMP. (A), control; (B), with 10 ug/ml of epolactaene; (C), with 1 mM of dibutyryl cAMP. (Ref:2)

Day 1

Day 3

Differentiation of normal PC12 cells induced by NGF or gamma-lactam-related compounds.
Cells were plated on poly-L-lysine-coated 24-well dishes at the density of 1000 cells per well. After 3 to 16 h, media were changed to fresh media containing 0.5 % FBS and NGF (100 ng/ml), MT-19 (1 ug/ml), or MT-20 (1 ug/ml). Cells were photographed after 1 nad 3 days of treatment. (Ref:1)


  1. H. Kakeya, I. Takahashi, G. Okada, K. Isono, H. Osada.
    Epolactaene, a novel neuritogenic compound in human neuroblastoma cells, produced by a marine fungus.
    J. Antibiotics, 48, 733-735 (1995).

  2. M. Matsumoto, T. Sudo, M. Maruyama, H. Osada, M. Tsujimoto.
    Activation of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase is crucial in osteoclastogenesis induced by tumor necrosis factor.
    FEBS Lett., 486, 23-28 (2000).

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